David J. Cox  Explanation by Pattern  REFERENCE - INTERNET




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COMPUTERS, VISUALIZATION, AND THE NATURE OF REASONING   Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy.    http://www-cali.stanford.edu/hpl  (accessed June 7, 2005)  “The computer is bringing about a revolution in our understanding of inference, representation, and reasoning, some of our most fundamental notions of logic.”  p 1.

In using Turing’s World in our teaching, we became enormously impressed by the cognitive power of the graphical representation of Turing machines over the more text-based, 4-tuple representation.  There was no comparison between the two when it came to ease of design, understanding, or verification of Turing machines.  While both modes of representation are available in Turing’s World, students never resorted to the linguistic representation except when told to do so.  This sparked our interest in the general topic of visual programming languages even before it became a lively topic in computer science.”  p 7.

“We must confess, though, that we did not really grasp the revolutionary import for logic of what we were observing in our students.  After all, we already knew that it was much easier to do the diagrammatic representation of a Turing machine:  that is why we designed Turing’s World with its graphical capabilities in the first place.  The full import of what we had noticed only hit us with Tarsky’s World.” p 7.

“We also looked at the so-called ‘analytical reasoning’ problems posed on standardized tests like the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and the Law School Aptitude Test (LSAT).  These problems are logical puzzles, but the natural way to attack them is almost always to find a good way to represent them diagrammatically and to use the diagram in reasoning through to a solution.  Casting the problem into standard propositional or first-order notation typically obscures the situation, making the solution even harder to find.” p 11.

“Until recently, reasoning using nonsentential representations could easily be swept under the logician’s rug.  But the computer revolution has changed this . . .. ” p 19.

CONCEPTUAL GRAPHS. Conceptual graphs (CGs) are a system of logic based on the existential graphs of Charles Sanders Peirce and the semantic networks of artificial intelligence. They express meaning in a form that is logically precise, humanly readable, and computationally tractable. With their direct mapping to language, conceptual graphs serve as an intermediate language for translating computer-oriented formalisms to and from natural languages. With their graphic representation, they serve as a readable, but formal design and specification language. CGs have been implemented in a variety of projects for information retrieval, database design, expert systems, and natural language processing. From: A World of Conceptual Graphs http://conceptualgraphs.org/body.html accessed 2/25/06.CREATIVITY TEAMS “CREA-Teams” ™  Anne Durrum Robinson.   Experience and strategies for growing sustained, innovative teamwork and processes throughout organizations.   http://www.winstonbrill.com/bril001/html/article_index/articles/51-100/article96_body.html  (accessed June 7, 2005)

DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY OF MIND.  Chris Eliasmith, editor.   http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~philos/MindDict/ (accessed June 7, 2005).   Definition of ‘practical reasoning’ by Elijah Millgram in his extensive article on reasoning.  “Practical reasoning – Figuring out what to do;  reasoning directed towards action (as contrasted with reasoning directed toward arriving at belief).”


DISCOVERING, VISUALIZING AND SHARING KNOWLEDGE THROUGH PERSONALIZED LEARNING KNOWLEDGE MAPS.  Jasminko Novak, Michael Wurst, Martin Schneider, Monica Fleischmann, and Wolfgang Strauss.   http://netzspannung.org/about/tools/documents/JN_FN_Discovering_Visualizing_04.pdf .


ELEMENTS OF USER EXPERIENCE, THE.  Jesse James Garrett.  This diagram shows the Web as Software Interface (task-oriented) and the Web as Hypertext System (information-oriented).    http://www.jjg.net/ia . (accessed June 7, 2005)


EUSES Consortium web site. – End Users Shape Effective Software.  http://eecs.oregonstate.edu/EUSES/abstract.php   (accessed Oct. 10, 2004).  This is a consortium of researchers at Oregon State University, Carnegie Mellon University, Drexel University, Penn State University, University of Nebraska, and Cambridge University. Their goal is to develop and investigate technologies for enabling End Users to Shape Effective Software.  Their research question is:  Is it possible to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to end users?

FRAME-BASED SYSTEMS.  Bernard Nebel. At http://www.cs.umbc.edu//771/current/papers/nebel.html  accessed Nov. 15, 2005.

“Frame-based systems are knowledge representation systems that use frames, a notation originally introduced by Marvin Minsky, as their primary means to represent domain knowledge.  A frame is a structure for representing a CONCEPT or situation such as “living room” or “being in a living room.” Attached to a frame are several kinds of information, for instance, definitional and descriptive information and how to use the frame. Based on the original proposal, several knowledge systems have been built and the theory of frames has evolved. . . . “

[Nebel continued] “In the seminal paper ‘A framework for representing knowledge,’ Minsky proposed organizing knowledge into chunks called frames.  These frames are about how to use the frame supposed to capture the essence of concepts or stereotypical situations, for example being in a living room or going out for dinner, by clustering all relevant information for these situations together.  This includes information about how to use the frame, information about expectations (which may turn out to be wrong), information about what to do if expectations are not confirmed, and so on.  This means . . . that a great deal of procedurally expressed knowledge should be part of the frames.  Collections of such frames are to be organized in frame systems in which frames are interconnected. . . . If this brief summary sounds vague, it correctly reproduces the paper’s general tone. Despite the fact that this paper was a first approach to the idea of what frames could be, Minsky explicitly argued in favor of staying flexible and nonformal.”

[Nebel continued] “Details that have been left out of Minsky’s paper were later filled in by knowledge representation systems that were inspired by Minsky’s ideas – the most prominent being FRL and KRL (Bobrow and Winograd 1997).  KRL was one of the most ambitious projects in this direction.  It addressed almost every representational problem discussed in the literature.  The net result is a very complex language with a very rich repertoire of representational primitives and almost unlimited flexibility.”

[Nebel continued] “Features that are common to FRL, KRL, and later frame-based systems (Fikes and Kehler 1985) are: (1) frames are organized in (tangled) hierarchies;  (2) frames are composed out of slots (attributes) for which fillers (scalar values, references to other frames or procedures) have to be specified or computed; and (3) properties (fillers, restriction on fillers, etc.) are inherited from superframes to subframes in the hierarchy according to some inheritance strategy.  These organizational principles turned out to be very useful, and, indeed, the now popular object-oriented languages have adopted these organizational principles. . . .”

FRAME PROBLEM. Eric Lormand,  Department of Philosophy, University of Michigan. MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~lormand/phil/cogsci/frame.htm (accessed July 4, 2003).


GENETIC ENGINEERING NEWS.  Rescentris Releases Version 2.5 of its Semantic Notebook, CERF - The ELN for Biology; CERF Development Kit Gives Clients Control of CERF Extensibility Framework with Ontology Manager.  http://www.genengnews.com/news/bnitem.aspx?name=1151312XSL_NEWSML_TO_NEWSML.xml    “An ontology is defined as a set of concepts and their relationships.”  (accessed January 26, 2006).

GRAPH: Logical (see also Graph: Existential).
"A logical graph is a graph representing logical relations iconically, so as to be an aid to logical analysis." ('Logical Tracts. No. 2. On Existential Graphs, Euler's Diagrams, and Logical Algebra', CP 4.420, c. 1903)

"A logical graph is a graph which asserts something, or represents an assertion, concerning a recognized universe, real or fictive." ('Logical Tracts. No. 1. On Existential Graphs', MS 491: 2, c. 1903)

"Logical Diagram (or Graph): Ger. Logische Figur; Fr. Diagramme logique; Ital. diagramma logico. A diagram composed of dots, lines, &c., in which logical relations are signified by such spatial relations that the necessary consequences of these logical relations are at the same time signified, or can, at least, be made evident by transforming the diagram in certain ways which conventional 'rules' permit." ('Logical Diagram', DPP 2 / CP 4.347, 1902)

GUIDE TO PHILOSOPHY ON THE INTERNET.
Peter Suber,  Philosophy Department,  Earlham College, Richmond IN.  A collection of online philosophy resources.  43 pages.  http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/philinks.htm (accessed June 30, 2003.)


C+ THE HILLSIDE GROUP http://hillside.net/ From the home page: “The Hillside Group is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to improving human communication about computers by encouraging people to codify common programming and design practice. We sponsor conferences (like PLoP, EuroPLoP, Using Patterns, ChiliPLoP, Mensore PLoP, KoalaPLoP, Viking PLoP and SugarLoafPLoP) and also host the patterns home page.” (Hillside Group continued) “The world of software development is a mixture of concerns ranging from correctness and execution efficiency to the beauty and elegance of the architecture, design, and internal structure of systems to the overall aesthetics, usability, and humanity of systems and all the way to the organization of development and the manner of software production. This spectrum can be broken down into those parts that are necessary for the correct and efficient functioning and creation of systems on one hand and what makes those systems and organizations for making them "good," aesthetically pleasing, and humane on the other. That is, at one extreme are concerns about the minimal requirements to get the job done and at the other are concerns about the qualities of the software and the humanity of the process that produced it.”

Hodges’ Health Career Model. Jones. (2000) Hodges’ Health Career Domains Mode, Assumptions Structure At http://www.p-jones.demon.co.uk/struct.html (accessed Nov. 15, 2005).
”If by ‘reasoning’ we are referring to people’s ability to extract relevant information from the chaotic mix about them, then some selection, ordering, and sorting process must be at work. Decisions must be made about what to ask, what is relevant, what not. Some heuristic (rule) or framework must be used. . . . Whatever they may be called – these cognitive structures,are important in imposing constraints on the search for, interpretation and deployment of solutions to information processing problems.”

[Jones continued] “ . . . STRUCTURE Structures can be physical such as those you can bump into on a clear sunny day, or they may be conceptual, living in the mind, or represented on paper (or electronically). It is not surprising then that various process based formulations displaying a variety of structures have developed to assist nurses and health workers. The march of time and Governments with the constant stream of political, cultural and social changes continually challenge and test these processes and the structures in which they are thought to reside. . . .”
See also HODGES’ HEALTH CAREER MODEL: AN INTRODUCTION Hodges, B. and Jones, P. (1997) At http://www.p-jones.demon.co.uk/intro-hcm.htm (accessed Nov. 15, 2005).

HOW TO BUILD A UNIVERSE THAT DOESN’T FALL APART TWO DAYS LATER.
Philip K. Dick, 1978. http://downlode.org/etext/how_to_build.html  “Well, I will tell you what interests me, what I consider important.  I can’t claim to be an authority on anything, but I can honestly say that certain matters absolutely fascinate me, and that I write about them all the time.  The two basic topics . . . are ‘What is reality?’ and ‘What constitutes the authentic human being?’

“. . . My first story had to do with a dog that imagined that the garbagemen who came every Friday morning were stealing valuable food, which the family had carefully stored away in a safe metal container. . . . Finally, in the story, the dog begins to imagine that someday the garbagemen will eat the people in the house, as well as stealing their food.  Of course, the dog is wrong about this. . . . But the dog’s extrapolation was in a sense logical – given the facts at his disposal.  The story was about a real dog, and I used to watch him and try to get inside his head and imagine how he saw the world.  Certainly, I decided, that dog sees the world quite differently than I do, or any humans do.  And then I began to think, Maybe each human being lives in a unique world, a private world, a world different from those inhabited and experienced by all other human beings.”

HOW TO DESIGN PROGRAMS  An Introduction to Computing and Programming (September 2003 version)  Matthias Felleisen, Robert Bruce Findler,  Matthew Flatt, and   Shiram Krishnamurthi.   2001 MIT Press.  This is an elaborate, complete online e-book for teachers and students.  It contains solutions to exercises for teachers;  additional problem sets not found in the book;  hints on how to use DrScheme; etc.  http://www.htdp.org/   (accessed June 7, 2005).

JOHN SOWA’S DIRECTORIES.  http://www.jfsowa.com . (accessed June 7, 2005)  This web site contains a collection of directories maintained by John F. Sowa,  a leading researcher on the science of computers, information, and knowledge representation.  The site contains directories on Conceptual Graphs;  Knowledge Representation;  Ontology,  History of Computer Development,  and a Tutorial on Mathematics.

KNOWLEDGE, ACTION, AND CONTEXT .  Uwe V. Riss.
http://www.nt.fh-koeln.de/philosophyandinformatics/AutumnMeeting2004/sois/SOI_Riss.pdf  (accessed May 20, 2005). 
  “The concepts of knowledge vary between more static views, [they] see knowledge as a mental state or object, and more dynamic views, which understand knowledge as a process.”

KNOWLEDGE OR INFORMATION  What Makes the Difference?
   Ewa Braf ,  Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.  http://www.ihh.hj.se/eng/research/publications/wp/2001-9_ewabref.pdf   “ . . . elaborates on and gives a suggestion of how we may distinguish between knowledge and information.”


LOGIC AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.   Richmond Thomason article in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2003 edition), Edward N. Zalta editor.  41 pages http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2003/entries/logic-ai/ (accessed Jan. 3, 2004).   

LOGICAL SYMBOLS from Garth Kemerling’s Philosophy Pages.  http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e10a.htm (accessed July 4, 2003).


MEREOTOPOLOGY: A THEORY OF PARTS AND BOUNDARIESBarry Smith. http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith  From Data and Knowledge Engineering, 20 (1996), 287-303.  From the Introduction to the article.  (accessed Jan. 15, 2006): “This paper is a contribution to formal ontology.  It seeks to use topological means in order to derive ontological laws pertaining to the boundaries and interoiors of wholes, to relations of contact and connectedness, to the concepts of surface, point, neighborhood, and so on.  The basis of the theory is mereology, the formal of part and whole, a theory which is shown to have a number of advantages, for ontological purposes, over standard treatments of topology in set-theoretic terms.  One central goal of the paper is to provide a rigorous formulation of Brentano’s thesis to the effect that a boundary can exist only as part of a whole of higher dimension which it is the boundary of.  It concludes with a brief survey of current applications of mereotopology in areas such as natural-language analysis, geographic information systems, machine vision, naive physics, and database and knowledge engineering.”

Dr. Smith is editor of THE MONIST  http://monist.buffalo.edu  an international quarterly journal of general philosophical inquiry.  It was established in 1888 (n.b.) as a quarterly journal of the philosophy of science, making it one of the oldest publications in the world.

C+ National Science Foundation (NSF) Web site – comments on the importance of graphics. http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/scivis/index.jsp?id=challenge “Some of science’s most powerful statements are not made in words. From the diagrams of DaVinci to Hooke’s microscopic bestiary, the beaks of Darwin’s finches, Rosalind Franklin’s x-rays or the latest photographic marvels retrieved from the remotest galactic outback, visualization of research has a long and literally illustrious history. To illustrate is, etymologically and actually, to enlighten.

You can do science without graphics. But it’s very difficult to communicate it in the absence of pictures. Indeed, some insights can only be made widely comprehensible as images. How many people would have heard of fractal geometry or the double helix or solar flares or synaptic morphology or the cosmic microwave background if they had been described solely in words?

To the general public, whose support sustains the global research enterprise, these and scores of other indispensable concepts exist chiefly as images. They become part of the essential iconic lexicon. And they serve as a source of excitement and motivation for the next generation of researchers.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) and Science created the Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge to celebrate that grand tradition—and to encourage its continued growth. In a world where science literacy is dismayingly rare, illustrations provide the most immediate and influential connection between scientists and oth er citizens, and the best hope for nurturing popular interest. Indeed, they are now a necessity for public understanding of research developments: In an increasingly graphics-oriented culture, where people acquire the majority of their news from TV and the World Wide Web, a story without a vivid and intriguing image is often no story at all.”

NOTES ON A VISUAL SHORTHAND FOR CONCEPTUAL GRAPHICS.  2005  Robert McNally.  http://www.dangerousgames.com/~ironwolf/writings/cg_shorthand/   “ . . . a notation inspired by the human factors incorporated in traditional musical notation may provide a ‘warmer,’ and hence more approachable, experience of CGs.”  CG [Conceptual Graphs. See John F. Sowa’s book KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION for a description of how Sowa developed the Conceptual Graphs system.]  McNally pictures ”Glyphs” and “Roles” which are icon-like symbols  presented in  Sowa’s book. McNally refers to the (proposed) ANSI standard display form DF and linear form LF. McNally also has an interesting site  Glendora Gravity Labs: A Community Juggling Club at http://www.gravitylabs.org  to which all age and skill-levels are invited.  (accessed May 20, 2005 and Feb 11, 2006).

ONTOLOGY  A Resource Guide for Philosophers.  Raul Corazzon. http://www.formalontology.it/index.htm (accessed June 7, 2005).


C+ PHILOSOPHY PAGES 1997-2006 Garth Kemerling http://www.philosophypages.com/index.htm From the section: Assembled Western philosophers “Ludwig Wittgenstein: Analysis of Language: Language as Game [Kemmerling] “On this conception of the philosophical enterprise, the vagueness of ordinary usage is not a problem to be eliminated but rather the source of linguistic riches. It is misleading even to attempt to fix the meaning of particular expressions by linking them referentially to things in the world. The meaning of a word or phrase or proposition is nothing other than the set of (informal) rules governing the use of the expression in actual life.”

“Like the rules of a game, Wittgenstein argued, these rules for the use of ordinary language are neither right nor wrong, neither true nor false: they are merely useful for the particular applications in which we apply them. The members of any community—cost accountants, college students, or rap musicians, for example—develop ways of speaking that serve their needs as a group, and these constitute the language-game (Moore's notes refer to the "system" of language) they employ. Human beings at large constitute a greater community within which similar, though more widely-shared, language-games get played. Although there is little to be said in general about language as a whole, therefore, it may often be fruitful to consider in detail the ways in which particular portions of the language are used.”

“Even the fundamental truths of arithmetic, Wittgenstein now supposed, are nothing more than relatively stable ways of playing a particular language-game. This account rejects both logicist and intuitionist views of mathematics in favor of a normative conception of its use. 2 + 3 = 5 is nothing other than a way we have collectively decided to speak and write, a handy, shared language-game. The point once more is merely to clarify the way we use ordinary language about numbers.”

Readers of science and philpsophy will be interested in Steven Hawkings’statement about Wittgenstein being the most important philosopher of the 20th century.

C+
SIGNS, PROCESSES, and LANGUAGE GAMES Foundations for Ontology John F. Sowa http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/signproc.htm (Accessed ) Quotation included from Alfred North Whitehead’s Adventures of Ideas:“Systems, scientific and philosophic, come and go. Each method of limited understanding is at length exhausted: In its prime each system is a triumphant success: in its decay it is an obstructive nuisance.”

“ABSTRACT. According to Heraclitus [about 535-475 BC], panta rhei – everything is in flux. [flux: Constant or frequent change; fluctuation: American Heritage Dictionary] But what gives that flux form is the logos – the words or signs that enable us to see patterns in the flux, remember them, talk about them, and take action upon them even while we ourselves are part of the flux we are acting on and in. Modern physics is essentially a theory of that flux in which the ultimate building blocks of matter maintain some semblance of stability only because of conservation of laws of energy, momentum, spin, charge, and more exotic notions like charm and strangeness. Meanwhile, the concepts of everyday life are derived from experience with objects and processes that are measured and classified by comparisons with the human body, its parts, and its typical movements. Yet despite the vast differences in sizes, speeds, and time scale, the languages and counting systems of our stone age ancestors have been successfully adapted to describe, analyze, and predict the behavior of everything from subatomic particles to clusters of galaxies that span the universe. Any system of ontology that is adequate for defining the concepts used in natural languages must be at least as flexible as the languages themselves: it must be able to accommodate a;; the categories of thought that are humanly conceivable and relate them to all possible experiences, either directly by human senses or indirectly by whatever instrumentation any scientist or engineer may invent. As a foundation for such an ontology, this paper proposes the philosophies of three logicians who understood the limitations of logic in dealing with both the flux and the logos: Charles Sanders Peirce, Alfred North Whitehead, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. This paper is an extended versions of an invited lecture presented at the International Conference on the Challenge of Pragmatic Process Phiolosophy at the University of Nigmegen in May 1999.”

The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct Them.   Joseph D. Novak, Cornell  University.  At http://cmap//coginst.uwf.edu/info/  (accessed Nov. 15, 2005).

TRANSACTIONS FRAMEWORK FOR EFFECTIVE ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT, THE.   Simon Polovina and Richard Hill,  Multi-Agent & Web-Based Research Group, Sheffield Hallam University, UK.  Polovina and Hill addressed this concept in a working paper and in additional comments at the International Conference on Conceptual Structures 2004.  They propose basing such patterns around  “ . . . transactions [which] recognize the optimal relationships that occur through a mutually beneficial exchange in resources."   Examples of transaction patterns are listed from biology, physics, economics, business, ecology, psychology, and sociology.  Email:  S.Polovina@shu.ac.uk

TYPES AND TOKENS FOR LOGIC WITH DIAGRAMSFrithjof Dau,  Technische Universität Darmstadt, Fachbereich  Mathematik  http://www.dr-dau.net/Papers/iccs2004.pgf .  International Conference on Conceptual Structures 2004.  Dau proposes type-structures and token-structures as part of diagrammatic systems for precise mathematical reasoning.  He also cites researchers like Frege, Euler, Venn, Sowa, and Peirce who have proposed diagrammatic systems of representation that are not mathematical.  “It is well accepted that diagrams play a crucial role in human reasoning.  .  But in mathematics, diagrams are most often only used for visualizations, but it is boubtedf that diagrams are rigor enough to play an essential role in a proof. This paper takes the opposite point of view:  It is argued that rigor formal logic can be carried out with diagrams.  . . . The argumentation for this point of view will be embedded into a case study, namely the existential graphs of Peirce.”  (accessed May 20, 2005).

User-centric Computational Systems for Complex Problem Space Exploration I.C. Parmee, Advanced Computation in Design and Decision-making,  CEMS,  University of the West of England  Bristol

VISUAL INTERFACES TO DIGITAL LIBRARIES. (Electronic version) Katy Börner, Chaomei Chen, editors 2002 Springer-Verlag: http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2539.htm (accessed Oct. 8, 2004). This is an extensive source of selected full-text papers presented at first and second international workshops, ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2001 and 2002.

VULGAR RORTYISM.  Susan Haack.  Writing in The New Criterion about C. S. Peirce, as  “. . . working scientist, pioneer of modern logic, and founder of pragmatism, envisaged a reformed, scientific philosophy which would use ‘the most rational methods it can devise. . . .’  His philosophy was informed by the pragmatic maxim, identifying the meaning of a concept with ‘the conceivable practical consequence, -- that is, the consequences for deliberate, self-controlled conduct, -- of the affirmation or denial of the concept.”  http://www.newcriteruion.com/archive/16/nov97/menand.htm#back1   [from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Spring 2005.]  Dr. Haack is a professor of philosophy and law, and is currently on the faculty at the University of Miama in Florida.  She has made significant contributions in the fields of philosophy of language, epistemology, and metaphysics. She is a graduate of Oxford and Cambridge.  Dr. Haack has held the positions of Fellow of New Hall, Cambridge and professor of philosophy at the University of Warwick.  Haack has been cited in many specialized academic journals.

WIKIMEDIA  [from Wikipedia.]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia  The Wikimedia Foundation Inc. is the parent organization of Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Wikiquote, Wikibooks (including Wikijunior and Wikiversity), Wikisource, Wikimedia Commons, Wikispecies, and Wikinews.  It is a non-profit corporation begun June 20, 2003 .”  (accessed June 7, 2005).

WIKIPEDIA  [from Wikipedia].  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia  is a Web-based, free-content encyclopedia that is written collaboratively by volunteers.  It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation.  Entries on traditional encyclopedic topics exist alongside those on almanac, gazetteer, and current events topics.  Its purpose is to create and distribute, worldwide, a free encyclopedia in as many languages as possible.  Wikipedia is one of the most popular reference sites on the Web[1]  . . . , receiving around 60 million hits per day.” (accessed June 7, 2005)

"Its articles are edited by volunteers in wiki fashion, meaning articles are subject to change by nearly anyone.  Wikipedia's volunteers enforce a policy of "neutral point of view."  Under this, the views presented by notable persons or literature are summarized without attempting to determine an objective truth.  Because of its open nature, vandalism and inaccuracy are problems in Wikipedia.”

“Wikipedia's status as a reference work has been controversial - Praised for its free distribution, editable nature and wide range of topics, criticized for a perceived lack of accountability and authority when compared with traditional encyclopedias, systemic biases, and deficiencies in some topics.”

WORKING PAPER  Models for the Creative Process.
  Paul E. Plsek. 1996
http://www.directedcreativity.com/pages/WPModels.html  .  A clear, comprehensive survey. 
“. . . we . . . explore the various models to guide creativity and innovation that have been suggested in the literature over the past 80 years.   We will extract common themes . . . and present a composite model that integrates these themes.”  (accessed May 20, 2005).
 

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